Rosa Damascena has many varieties, the most common of which is "Trigintipetala" which is particularly grown in Bulgaria and Turkey, as well as Morocco, Egypt, Iran, Syria, India, and the Caucasus for production of rose oil. Rosa Damascena also known as the Isparta Rose, Pink Oil Rose, Oil Rose, Gum Rose, Chios Rose, and Damask Rose is a pink colored, semi-double, perennial , thorny plant with a strong scent and high resistance to winter conditions. Rose Damascena plants have a height between 1.5 and 3 meters. It has a cylindrical solid body with dark color and multiple branches with various small and big thorns along them. Alternatively positioned leaves have a soft texture, fine hairs (trichomes), stalk, stipule (appendage), and 5 to 7 folioles.
Folioles (leaflets) have an oval shape with 3 to 4 cm length, simple toothed edges, and bottom surface with hairs (trichomes). Flowers are slightly droopy with light or dark pink color. In single color flowers, the inner petals are smaller than the outer ones, and blossoming is similar to that of a bush plant. Calyx (sepal) is longer than corolla (petal), and consists of 5 multiple-part sepals (calyxes). Corolla has multiple petals which have oval shape and pale pink color with a white base.
Lavender is a perennial woody shrub with 30 to 70 cm height. Lower part of lavender plant is quite dense, forked and woody. It has opposite leaves constituting a thin strip diagonal with subsequent strip; leaves have a pointed end, slightly upright edge, grayish green top, and white bottom part with goat-like hairs. Flowers are represent an ear of grain with nodes, each node having 5 to 8 flowers. Cup leaves are reddish brown and tubular while sepals have a tubular back part with 1 cm length and five lobes in the end part, two lobes being in upper lip and three lobes in the lower lip with lilac, blue, purple, pink and light red color, and flower stalks with 10 to 20 cm length. It has dark and bright fruits with seeds.
If lavenders are collected as buds before blossoming flowers, then more ether oil can be obtained. Lavender flowers are collected with their stalks (petioles) from June to September, dried in shadow or processed fresh if tincture is to be produced.
Laurel or Mediterranean Laurel (Laurus Nobilis) is an evergreen tree with nice scent belonging to Lauraceae family, and its leaves have a wide range of use. Generally, it is a tree measuring 2 to 6 meters which sometimes can measure 8 to 10 meters. Lower part of its body is gray while the top part is green and smooth. Young sprouts are green which then turns into red and black, and falls down. Leaves are narrow and elliptic with slightly wavy edges which become pointed towards the end. Leaves are 6 to 12 cm long and 2 to 4 cm wide. Leaves are green and scented, shaped like a spear, having a leathery and hard texture with bright top surface, and wavy edges, arranged alternatively. Small yellowish and greenish flowers which blossom during spring turn into pulpy fruits with single seed and dark purple color as they mature. Flowers have 1cm diameter with light yellow and green color. 4 to 5 leaves spring from same point of stalk to constitute a group. These flower groups blossom in pairs on the side of leaf. Its flowers are dioecious. Female flowers have 4 blunt etamins. The grape-shaped fruit is first green and as big as a rosary bead, and turns into dark black when it matures. Trees are classified as female and male. The black fruit containing a single seed measures approximately 1cm in diameter.
It is commonly found in provinces of Isparta, Burdur, İzmir, Aydın, Muğla, etc. in Turkey. It has thin taproots, and spreads by crawling, constituting large groups in a short period of time.
Its body climbs vertically, covered with four-cornered slightly haired offshoots in green and sometimes red color. The body bifurcates as it rises, it has opposite and alternating leaves shaped like egg, becoming pointed towards the end, and lower leaves are bigger while the upper leaves are smaller. Accordingly, leaves can have 2 to 10cm length and 1 to 6 cm width. Leaves are green with generally smooth edges, sometimes jagged and slightly wavy. Petals of flowers have two lips, the lower lip having three lobes and the upper lip having two lobes generally in pink, sometimes in blood red, and rarely in white color. There are 4 pollination stamens, and flowers gather as groups giving it the shape of an umbrella.
Rosemary that belongs to Labiatae family grows vertically up to 1 to 2 meters with multiple branches. It is an evergreen, perennial, shrub-like plant. It is named as Rosmarinus Officinalis in Latin.
Its leaves have 1 to 2 cm length and 2 to 3mm width. Strip-like leaves are as hard as leather with bright green color on top and gray color at bottom surface. In lateral section, leaves are covered with teeth-like hairs (trichomes) on the top epidermis. Hypodermis layer is distinctive under the epidermis. Lower surface of leaf has plenty of candelabra hairs, and secretory hairs on both upper and lower surface. Essential oil is available in the secretory hairs on the epidermis. Secretory hairs shaped like scales with 8 cells are specific characteristic of this family. Ethereal oil is obtained from members of this family.
Top part of branches has many flowers. Its leaves and flowers are therapeutic. This plant used in food, perfume and pharmaceutical industries can also be used as an ornamental plant. Its flowers have violet color. It blossoms in spring.
It is widely produced in the Mediterranean and Aegean Regions in Turkey. It is also found in Provinces of Istanbul, Bursa, Bilecik, Bolu, Ankara, Amasya, Samsun, Kütahya, Malatya, Erzincan, Tunceli and Muğla. In recent years, it has become more widespread in Turkey as a result of which the production increased up to 200 tons. Highest yield is obtained in autumn months. Melissa leaves which are started to be collected in September are placed into vessels which are then subject to steam distillation. 1200 Kg Melissa leaves have to be processed to obtain 1 Kg Melissa oil. Melissa (Melissa officinalis L.) is a perennial plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family. The plant has fibrous root. It has a tuberous root with many fibrous roots. Its roots are extremely fibrous with a color ranging from whitish to light brown. Plant's body grows vertically or semi-vertically with a height up to 60 to 100cm. It has oval leaves. Base of leaves is shaped like heart with pointed ends. Length of leaves measures 2 to 8 cm with 1.5 to 5.0 cm width. Leaves on lower part of the plant are bigger than the leaves in upper part, and have toothed edges. Flowers gathers as groups in the end of stem. Color of plant's flowers varies from bluish white to yellowish white. The plant is hermaphrodite, i.e. has only female or male flowers. Hermaphrodite flowers can quickly go protandrous.
It is a member of Iridaceae family. Iris Germanica which grows in hot and mild climate zones in Northern Hemisphere have dazzling flowers, and is also grown as an ornamental plant in many places in Turkey.
It is an herbaceous plant that can grow as high as 100 to 150 cm. It has sword-like light green leaves with pointed ends with a length up to 50 cm. It has big purple colored flowers blossoming in the end of spring and in summer having three petals and three sepals, and a characteristic scent. Petals and sepals are arranged alternatively. The bowl-like middle part of flower is yellow. Female and male organs are in that bowl-like part. Rhizome (rootstock) of Iris Germanica is thick, strong and branched. The plant is removed in every 2 to 3 years, and its rhizomes are separated and planted in different places to propagate the plant.Rhizome of Iris Germanica contains essential oil, sticky plant liquid, starch, sugar, resinous substances, tannin, salicylic acid, and a substance called iridin. Iris Germanica has flowers with strong scent which are used in perfumery and cosmetics industries.
It is grown in Afyon, Burdur, Denizli, Isparta, Kütahya, Konya and Çukurova in Turkey. It is an annual herbaceous plant with pink elegant flowers. Capsule flowers are collected and dried during summer months. Capsules are broken, and flower seeds are taken out of such broken capsules. Then such flower seeds are subject to cold press to extract oil.
Black cumin plant is a pilose (hairy) plant with a branched body with approximately 40 to 70cm height. Lower leaves have petioles (stalks) while upper leaves lack petioles. They have light green color. There is one flower in the end of stalk.
Flowers have 5 petals with green, blue, and purple color. Sepals are round with pointed ends. Black cumin seeds are inside the characteristic capsule of the plant, and are black. Black cumin seeds emit a strong odor when ground.